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Element 1: Foundations in Health and Safety

  1. Replacement or repair of damaged plant and equipment is a cost that an organization may face following a workplaceaccident.


List EIGHT possible costs to the organization following a workplace   accident(or)                  (8) Identify the possible cost to an organization following an accident in the workplace. (or) (8) Identify possible costs to an organization resulting from inadequate health and safety standards.                                               (8)

(1-5) Direct Costs:

  • Fines in the criminalcourts.
  • First- aid or medicalcost.
  • Workers sickpay.
  • Overtime to make up for the losttime.
  • Lost production time whilst dealing with theinjury.
  • Compensation payable to thevictim.
  • Increase in insurance premium and indemnitypayment.


Indirect Costs:

  • Loss of staff morale in theorganization.
  • Damage to public image and businessreputation.
  • Cost of recruiting and training temporary or replacement oflabour.
  • Cost of remedial action following aninvestigation.
  • General difficulties in recruiting and retainingstaff.
  • Compliance with any enforcement noticeserved.


  1. Explain the three good reasons for preventing accident in the  workplace (or)                                          (8) Explain the reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace.                (8)


The reason for maintaining the work place from preventing the accidents should be structured aroundthe moral, social and economic reasons within the organization.




The moral reason is to provide a reasonable standard of care and reduce the injuries, pain to workers suffering from workplace accidents and ill-health.



The legal reason is that to avoid any enforcement action and civil claims.



The economic benefits include but not limited to, more motivated workforce, increase in production rates, and reduce in premium rates and to avoid any costs associated with work placeaccidents.


Also by maintaining the work place by preventing accidents shall increase the company reputation and maintaining the image and reputation of the company with its various stakeholders, Improve the good safety culture in the organization.

  1. Give the meaning  of  thefollowing term:                                                                                                            (10)



(a)  Health:


Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.


(b)  Safety:


The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury.


(c)  Welfare:

Statutory procedure or social effort designed to promote the basic physical and material well-being of workers in need.

Ex: Provision of portable drinking water, Restroom etc.


(d)  Environmental Protection:

Environmental protection refers to any activity to maintain or restore the quality of environmental media through preventing the emission of pollutants or reducing the presence of polluting substances in environmental media.

Ex: changes in production techniques.


(e)  Near Misses:

A near miss is an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage – but had the potential to do so.

Example: A stone falls from height and close to your body but there is no accident or damage to the property.


(f)     Commuting Accidents

Every accident is referred to as commuting accident, which an insured person suffers on the way to or from the place of the insured activity. These are mainly road accidents, which represent more than half of the commuting accidents.



A commuting accident is an accident an employee suffers while travelling to or from his place of work.


(g)  Hazard

Something that has the potential to cause harm including ill health, injury, loss of product and/or damage to plant and property e.g. substances, machines, methods of work etc.


For example:

Loud noise is a hazard because it can cause hearing loss.


(h)  Risk

The likelihood of harm occurring and its severity. (Severity x likelihood)


For example:

Cement there is a risk that it may cause harm but the level of risk depend on thecircumstances


  1. Outline:
  2. Workersresponsibility
  3. Outline the health and safety responsibilities  of workers.                                                                (4)



-          Take responsible care of their own safety and that of other people who might be affected by the things that they do and the things that they fail to do.

-          Comply with Organization safety instruction and procedures.

-          Report any situation which they believe could be a hazard and which they cannot themselves correct.

-          Report any work-related accident or ill health.

-          Use all safety equipment properly and not tamper with it.


  1. Employersresponsibility
  2. Outline the health and safety responsibilities of employers towards workers  at work.            (4) (1-8)

-          To Provide and maintain workplaces, machinery and equipment and use working methods

that are safe.

-          Give necessary instruction, training and supervision in application and use of health and safety measures.

-          Introduce organisational arrangements relevant to activities and size of undertaking

-          Provide PPE and clothing without charge to workers.

-          Ensure that work organisation, particularly working hours and rest breaks, does not adversely affect occupational safety andhealth.

-          Take reasonably practical measures with a view to eliminating excessive physical and mental fatigue.

-          Keep up-to-date of scientific and technical knowledge to comply with the above.



  1. Outline why it is important that all the persons in an organization are aware of their roles and responsibilities  for  healthandsafety.                                                                                                                                                                    (8)


-          By knowing their responsibilities is the right education and will preserve the employee free from ill health.

-          The awareness shall protect themselves and those around them from harm.

-          The employees shall cooperate with employer including reporting any situation that present imminent risk.

-          The employee shall actively participate and exercise all health and safety related matters and committees.

-          The employee shall work towards and achieve the health and safety standards set by the employer.

-          The employee to be familiar with occupational health and safety legislation compliance while at work.

-          It will ensure them to keep the work place and the equipments are well maintained without risk.

-          To avoid any misuse of workplace welfare facilities provided.



  1. Outline the insured and uninsured cost by  the employer.                                                                            (8) Insured costs are,

-          Employers liability

-          Public / Third party liability

-          Contractors all risk

-          Plant and building damage

-          Tool and equipment Uninsured costs

-          Product and material damage

-          Emergency supplies

-          Production delays

-          Overtime and temporary labour

-          Investigation time

-          Supervisors time diverted


  1. Explain  Employers Liability  Insurance.                                                                                                            (3)


-          Employers’ liability insurance is designed to protect workers who have suffered a personal loss.

-          The purpose of employers’ liability insurance is to satisfy requirements for employers to carry appropriate insurance so that a worker, who is harmed due to the fault of their employer, is assured of receiving compensation even though the employer might have insufficient resources to pay compensation directly.

-          This form of insurance also enables to pay any legal fees and court fines.


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